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Spain is one of the most diverse countries, in terms of biodiversity, in the European Union. Situated between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Spain contains four of the nine biogeographic regions of the European Union (Atlantic, Alpine, Mediterranean and Macronesian), which provide the coexistence of a large number of species of fauna and flora.

The country is located in one of the 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world, thanks to its high rate of endemism, which requires specific steps to address conservation issues. Around 28% of terrestrial area is protected in Spain, as well as 12.7% marine protected area. These areas come under all IUCN categories of management and have a range of governance types including, (sub) national ministry, local communities, and collaborative governance.

One important Protected Area in Spain is Sierra Nevada, which is considered one of the richest biological areas at Iberian Peninsula and European scale. It is particularly rich in endemic species, with more than 2,100 plant taxa catalogued in 154 communities. Amongst the fauna species, the Iberian endemic Mountain Goat (Capra pyrenaica) has its biggest world population there. The desired future scenario for Spain would consist of a natural network of protected areas connected by ecological corridors where a favourable conservation status exists for natural habitats and species.

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